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Animals were housed with 12-h day–night cycles with lights on at am, in a holding room with target temperatures of 21±2 °C and target relative humidity from 30–70%.
Pigs were single housed in enriched pens with the possibility of social interaction.
A procedure project license was issued by the national authority.
Indeed, the vasodilator prostaglandin E1 has been shown to increase early absorption of human insulin in patients with diabetes ().
The aim of this study was to further evaluate the impact of niacinamide on insulin aspart absorption kinetics and to investigate whether the accelerated absorption facilitated by niacinamide could be the result of decreased insulin aspart self-association, increased blood perfusion of the depot or both.
Niacinamide mediates the acceleration of initial insulin aspart absorption, and the mechanism of action appears to be multifaceted.
Niacinamide increases the initial abundance of insulin aspart monomers and transport of insulin aspart after subcutaneous administration, and also mediates a transient, local vasodilatory effect.